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TECHNICAL  DEPARTMENT
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The parts of a volcano in the graphic above are numbered.  In the questions below the number of the question is directly related to the numbered part of the volcano.

 Read the questions below and write down the correct answer from the three options provided.  If in doubt, select your answer to check.

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1.  No. 1 is         @ Lava      (b) Ash        ©The magna chamber

 

2.  No.  2 is the    @ Vent    (b)  Conduit  (pipe)  ©  Secondary cone  

 

3.  No.  3  is the    @  Secondary cone   (b)  Branch pipe  ©  Crater

 

4.  No. 4   is  the     @  Secondary cone   (b)  Branch pipe  ©  Crater

 

5.  No.  5 is  the       @ Lava  flow    (b) Ash        © Magna chamber

 

6.  No.  6 is  the     @  Secondary cone   (b)  Branch pipe  © Vent

 

7.  No.  7 is     @  Throat  (b)  Layers of ash  ©  The ash cloud

 

8.  No. 8  is the    @  Secondary cone   (b)  Branch pipe  ©  Crater

 

9  No. 9 is  the   @  Throat  (b)  Layers of ash  ©  The ash cloud

 

10.  No.  10  is   @ Bedrock  (b)  The crater   ©  Layers of lava emitted by the volcano

 

11. No.  11  is   @ Lava   (b)  The crater   ©  Layers of ash emitted by the volcano

 

12. No.  12   is   @ Bedrock   (b)  The crater   ©  Layers of lava emitted by the volcano

 

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HOMEWORK 1
Homework 2

1. The word volcano is derived from

 @  Vulcano island off Sicily.

 (b)  Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

©  Vulcan matches.

 

2. Lava is

@ burnt out rock.

(b)  molten rock expelled by a volcano during eruption.

( c) the rock the volcano sits on.

 

3. The Secondary Cone is

( a )  hot spots changing with the passing of time.

( b)  another vent to the surface which allows the exit of lava.

( c) a funnel shaped hollow at the top of the vent

 

4.  The crater is

( a) molten rock expelled by a volcano during eruption

( b)  a funnel shaped hollow at the top of the vent.

( c) layers of ash and lava

 

5. When magma reaches the surface it is called lava

 ( a) true   ( b)  false

 

6. The magma chamber is

( a) at the Earth’s surface

( b) between 100 and 200km down

 

7.The Main vent is

( a) the path taken by the liquid rock from the magma chamber

( b)  hot spots changing with the passing of time

( c) burnt out rock

 

8.  Some types of lava can flow down the volcano

at over 30 miles per hour

( a)  true  ( b) false

 

9. The Ash and Lava Strata is

( a) the path taken by the liquid rock from the magma chamber

( b) layers of ash and lava

( c) invisible gasses

 

10.  Pieces of rock cool as they spin high through the air after being erupted from the volcano.  These rocks form rod shaped chunks which are called

( a) volcanic missiles

( b) volcanic bullets

( c) volcanic bombs.

 

 

 

the rocks are semi liquid.

 

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Vulcano island with the north coast of Sicily in the background

 

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See Qu. 10

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1. An earthquake is caused by

 

( a)  the collapsing of cavities under the earth’s crust setting up a chain reaction.

( b) the sudden release of strain energy in the earth's crust resulting in waves of shaking that radiate outwards from the earthquake source.

( c)  thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain generating landslides.

 

2. The majority of earthquakes occur

( a ) in cold icy areas of the earth where the earth’s crust is thin.

(b ) at the boundaries of the major tectonic plates.

( c) at areas of the earth where there are deep canyons.

 

 

3. Which countries have the largest and most frequent earthquakes?

( a) France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Austria.

( b) Alaska, Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia and Australasia

( c)  South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and The Ivory Coast.

 

4. How many global earthquakes ( measuring 7.0 or more on the Richter Scale) have there been on average over the past  100 years.

( a) 1000

( b) 250

( c) 20

 

5. Do earthquakes occur in Britain?

( a) Yes     ( b) No

 

6. The calculated location of the focus of an earthquake is called the

( a) hypocenter   b) epicenter.

 

7. That point on the Earth's surface directly above the hypocenter of an earthquake is called the

a) hypocenter  (b) epicenter.

 

8.  How long do earthquakes last?

( a)  between 2 and 3 hours

( b) between 30 and 90 minutes

( c) between 10 to 30 seconds

 

9.  Where is the safest place to be in an earthquake?

( a) In a city street

( b) In a building

( c) In an open field

 

10.  Can we predict earthquakes?

( a) No   ( b) Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Liquefaction

Water-saturated sands, silts, and other very [tightly-loosely] compacted soils, when subjected to earthquake motion, may be rearranged, thereby [losing-gaining] their supporting strength. When this occurs, buildings may partly [sink-rise up] into the ground and sand and silts may come to the surface to form sand [explosions-flows]. In effect, the soils behave as  [fluids-solids] when liquified.  (see fig 3)

 

Pipelines, tanks and ducts may [float-sink] up through the liquefied sand. Sand boils can erupt into buildings through utility openings, and may allow water to [build-damage] the structure or electrical systems.           (see Fig 4)  

Soil [liquefaction-boilefaction] was a major factor in the destruction in San Francisco's Marina District during the [1941-1989] earthquake.

 

 

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San Andreas Fault
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Fig 3
Fig 4
Homework 4
Homework 3
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Read the questions below and write down the correct answer from the options provided.  If in doubt, select your answer to check.

Read the questions below and write down the correct answer from the three options provided.  If in doubt, select your answer to check.

Write down the passage below, inserting the correct answer in the appropriate position.